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LTE Fundamentals

Course Code



2 Days

While there are no prerequisites for the course, an understanding of 2G or 3G telephone networks such as GSM/GPRS/EDGE, CDMA, EV-DO, UMTS or HSPA/HSPA+ would be helpful
This course provides information on the next generation of mobile broadband technology, Long Term Evolution (LTE). LTE represents an evolution from existing 3rd generation (3G) technologies to 4th generation (4G) mobile broadband technologies. LTE delivers increased peak data rates, improved spectrum efficiencies, reduction of air interface latency as well as other benefits. LTE provides a platform for bandwidth intensive mobile broadband applications such as video conferencing, mobile, online gaming and many other social and business applications. LTE is also optimized for IP traffic, allowing for additional benefits in terms of speed, integration and scalability.

The course examines the market forces behind the creation of LTE, LTE’s core components and architecture, air interface, protocol stacks and control and user planes. The course traces a data call from an LTE enabled device or user equipment (UE) through the architecture out to the Internet and back to the UE. The course details the workings of the UE from power up to network acquisition as well as tracking and handover procedures for the mobile UE. Quality of Service (QoS), a key feature of LTE is discussed in all its aspects, from the radio network, through to the core network. The course also overviews key technologies and concepts associated with LTE including the IP Multimedia System (IMS) Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS), IPv6 and advanced antenna technologies such as MIMO. The course concludes with a discussion of how LTE integrates with existing 2G and 3G networks and architectures.
This course is designed for individuals who are working with telephony networks who require a basic knowledge of LTE technology to be able to perform their job duties in an informed manner or who need baseline knowledge of LTE to further study LTE in more depth. The broad topics covered in the course are targeted at those with backgrounds from network engineers, installers, technologists and administrators to sales, marketing and support personnel.
Upon completion of this course, participants will be able to:
  • Discuss the conditions in the marketplace that drove the creation of LTE
  • Describe the features and benefits of LTE
  • Explain the advantages of LTE over 2G and 3G mobile telephone networks 
  • Identify the features and functions of LTE components 
  • Recognize the LTE air interface uplink and downlink methods
  • Differentiate between user planes and control planes
  • Differentiate between logical and transport channels
  • Compare how MPLS functions on an LTE network and how switches function on traditional telephone networks
  • List the states of an LTE enabled device or user equipment (UE) 
  • Identify steps an LTE enabled device or user equipment (UE) takes to power up and connect to an LTE network
  • Explain how LTE tracks mobile devices and executes a handover
  • Identify the different points in the LTE network that apply Quality of Service (QoS) standards apply QoS
  • Identify the role the IP Multimedia System (IMS) plays in the LTE network
  • Explain how LTE integrates with 2G and 3G telephone networks
Module 1: Market Conditions and Drivers for Mobile Broadband
Convergence and Mobility
Mobile Access to Data
3GPP Requirements for LTE
User Experience
IP-Based Mobile Applications
New Applications

Module 2: 4G Technology Comparison
Technology Evolution Path: 4G
Road to 4G
Emerging Technologies
Data Rates in Mbps
4G Technologies: HSPA+, WiMAX, and LTE

Module 3: LTE Components
Evolved Packet Core (EPC)
Mobility Management Entity (MME)
Serving Gateway (SGW)
Packet Data Network Gateway (PGW)
QoS – Policy Control
IP Multimedia System (IMS)
Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN)
Evolved Node B (eNodeB)
Two Nodes – Flat Architecture
Uplink and Downlink:
OFDMA (Downlink)
SC-FDMA (Uplink)
Antenna Configuration (SISO, MISO, SIMO, MIMO)
Data Rates

Module 4: LTE In Action
Bearer Setup
LTE in Action:
Policy Control
Bearer Setup
Connecting to the Internet
Dedicated Bearer Activation

Module 5: LTE Interfaces
Control Plane vs. User Plane
E-UTRAN Interfaces – X2
E-UTRAN Interfaces – S1
EPC Interfaces – S7
EPC Interfaces – S11
EPC Interfaces – S5
EPC Interfaces – S6a

Module 6: UE
Three UE States:
Detached State
Idle State
Active State
Power Up and Network Registration
Establish Signal
Register with the Network

Module 7: Mobility Management
Cell Reselection
Tracking Areas

Module 8: LTE Air Interface and RAN
Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network (E-UTRAN)
Uplink and Downlink
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA): Downlink
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
QAM – Data Rates in Mbps
Single-Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA): Uplink
Spectrum Flexibility
Frequency Reuse
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service (MBMS)
MBMS User Plane Architecture

Module 9: Frame Structure
TDD and FDD Transmission
Type 1 and Type 2 Frames
Type 1 Frames
Resource Blocks
Type 2 Frames

Module 10: Protocol Stacks
Physical Layer

Module 11: LTE Logical and Transport Channels
UE Downlink Traffic
Downlink Scheduler
Error Checking
Dynamic Downlink Allocation
Adaptive Modulation and Coding
UE Uplink Traffic
Uplink Scheduler
Error Correction
Downlink Transport Channels
Logical and Transport Channels
Uplink Transport Channels
Uplink Logical Channels
Mapping Downlink Transport to Logical Channels

Module 12: MIMO
Multiple Antenna Technology
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
Multiple Streams – Same Spectrum
Forms of Diversity
Pattern Diversity – Beamforming
MIMO Types
More Antennas, More Complexity
MIMO Throughput Gains

Module 13: IMS
IP Multimedia System (IMS)
IMS Components
EPC and IMS Function
IMS Architecture Planes:
IMS Application Plane
IMS Signaling Plane
IMS Media Plane
Creating Services with IMS
IMS Business Advantages

Module 14: MPLS
Existing Telephone Networks
MPLS Definition
Multiprotocol Label Switching
OSI Layers
MPLS Labels
Label Switch Router (LSR)
Label Switched Path (LSP)

Module 15: Quality of Service
Quality of Service
QoS Purpose and Function
Classification and Marking Fields:
IP Data Packet
Type of Service (ToS)
IP Precedence Values
Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) Classes
MPLS EXP Bit Marking
Class of Service (CoS)
QoS Marking
QoS Allocating Bandwidth
QoS Policing and Shaping

Module 16: IPv6
Need for IPv6
Benefits and Capabilities of IPv6:
Extended Address Space
Simplified IPv6 Header Format
Header Extensions
IPv6 Addressing
IPv6 Address Notation
Stateful Address Autoconfiguration
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)
Address Types: Unicast, Multicast, and Anycast
Interconnecting IPv6 and IPv4
Mobile IPv6

Module 17: LTE Compatibility
A Tale of Two Technologies
GSM Evolution
cdmaOne Evolution
Evolution to LTE
LTE Evolves from UMTS
LTE Evolves from EV-DO
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