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Ethernet Backhaul Introduction

Course Code



2 Days

Participants in this course should have an understanding of mobile broadband network architecture and transport technologies.

This course provides training on the technologies deployed in the network to accommodate the transition to Carrier Ethernet. The course starts with a review of the OSI model followed by an in depth analysis of the Transport Layer, Network Layer, Data Link Layer and Physical Layer. Some of the technologies examined include UDP, TCP, IP, Ethernet, ARP, RARP, Ethernet over SONET/SDH, PBB and MPLS. The course diagrams Ethernet backhaul architecture. Fiber optics is discussed in great detail including how fiber optics technology transports data signals and the standards for fiber optic cables. The course also covers the basics of fiber optic cable maintenance. The course includes a module instructing the basics of Carrier Ethernet and MPLS, both important transport technologies utilized in the backhaul. The course focuses on Carrier Ethernet’s structures and service models and MPLS’ ability to transport different types of traffic.

With increased demands in voice, data and video traffic over mobile broadband networks, existing T1 and other connections between the provider network and the cell site can no longer provide the bandwidth needs to meet the Service Level Agreements of the service provider’s customers. Mobile broadband wireless providers will deploy Ethernet in the backhaul primarily over fiber optics to ramp up to Gbps speeds.

This course is primarily targeted at Transport personnel, Switch Technicians, and Cell Technicians who need to learn about Ethernet Backhaul

Upon completion of this course, participants will:

  • Discuss the need for 4G mobile broadband
  • Identify the layers in the OSI model and data communication  between OSI layers
  • Identify data structures used in different layers of the network
  • Describe how an Ethernet frame moves across the network
  • Differentiate between IP addressing and MAC addressing
  • Differentiate between a switch and a router
  • Identify the fields in an Ethernet frame header and their purpose
  • Describe the role Ethernet Backhaul plays in the mobile broadband wireless provider’s network
  • Identify reasons for implementing next generation backhaul transport technologies
  • Recognize the 7 layers in the OSI model
  • Explain how payload data is built into a frame for travel over a network
  • Recognize how FTP, DNS and HTTP applications function over the network through the OSI model
  • Differentiate between UDP and TCP
  • Identify the role port numbers play in the transport of data
  • Identify the fields in an IP header and their function
  • Differentiate between public and private IP addresses
  • Explain the advantages of subnetting
  • Identify the fields in an Ethernet frame and their function
  • Differentiate a MAC address from an IP address
  • Recognize how Layer 2 technologies including Ethernet, EoS and PBB encapsulate data
  • Explain the importance of VLANs in the network
  • Given a network architecture diagram, identify how Ethernet is deployed in the backhaul
  • Walk through EoS, PBB and MPLS Ethernet backhaul architectures
  • Recognize the principles behind fiber optics
  • Describe how signals are transmitted through fiber optic cable
  • Differentiate between types of  fiber optic cables
  • Explain the difference between single mode and multimode fiber optic cables
  • Differentiate between Ethernet Copper vs. Ethernet Fiber
  • Clean fiber optic cable properly
  • Use Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer (OTDR) to maintain and troubleshoot fiber optic cable
  • Identify the service attributes of Carrier Ethernet
  • Recognize the advantages and challenges of Carrier Ethernet
  • Recognize the importance of RFC 2544 testing
  • Use best practices to troubleshoot Ethernet Backhaul issues
  • Describe how MPLS transports both TDM and IP/Ethernet technologies
  • Describe how MPLS transports payloads
  • Recognize the advantages and challenges of MPLS
  • Differentiate between IPv6 and IPv4
  • Identify the fields in an IPv6 header and their function

Day 1
Module 1: Market Forces
Convergence and Mobility
Wireless Data Demands
IP Based Mobile Apps and Devices
User Experience
Ethernet Backhaul

Module 2: Importance of the OSI Model
OSI Reference Model
Function of Each Layer
Building and Receiving a Frame
Frame Movement across the Network
Devices, Addresses and Data Structures
Routers vs. Switches

Module 3: Layers 5-7
Multiple Frames
Different Frame Sizes

Module 4: Layer 4, the Transport Layer
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
TCP Segment Format (Fields)
Universal Datagram Protocol (UDP)
UDP Segment Format (Fields)
Flow Control
TCP Sliding Window
Congestion Avoidance
Source Quench Messaging
Port Numbers

Module 5: Layer 3, the Network Layer
Internet Protocol
Building a Frame – adding IP Header
Fields in the IP Header
IP Address
Private Vs. Public IP Addresses

Module 6: Layer 2, the Data Link layer
Building a Frame – Encapsulates Packet, Place on Media
Ethernet Standards
Ethernet Frame
MAC Addressing
Fields in the Ethernet Header
VLAN tags
Other Layer 2 Technologies – EoS, PBB
MPLS tags – Layer 2.5

Module 7: Layer 1, the Physical Layer
Ethernet at the Physical Layer
Media Types
Cabling Distances
Ethernet Backhaul Architecture
Bit Times
Rate Shaping
Effective Throughput
Ethernet Frame Sizes

Day 2
Module 8 - Fiber Optics
Fiber Optic Technology Basics
Fiber Optic Cable
Fiber Optic Cable Standards
Fiber Mux at the Cell Site
Proper Fiber Cable Cleaning Techniques
Signal Patterns/Line Coding
Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer (OTDR)
Using OTDR for Establishing Baselines and Troubleshooting

Module 9: Carrier Ethernet
Carrier Ethernet Architecture
Ethernet Service Model (ESM)
Ethernet Virtual Connection (EVC)
Service Attributes
Bandwidth Profiles
Service Frame Delivery
Quality of Service (QoS)
Service Types
Advantages and Challenges of Carrier Ethernet

Module 10: RFC 2544 Acceptance Testing
RFC 2544 Standard
Throughput Test
Latency Test
Frame Loss Test
Back to Back Frame Test
QT-600 and HST -3000 Test Sets
Bandwidth at L1, L2, and L3, What’s the Difference
Performance Management
Y.1731 and 802.1ag
Disruptive and NonDisruptive Tests

Module 11: Troubleshooting Basics for Ethernet Backhaul
RFC 2544 Results
Basic Troubleshootng Questions
Visualizing Network Structure
Basic Troubleshooting Tale
Tricky Troubleshooting Tales

Module 12: MPLS
How MPLS is used in EBH
MPLS tags at Layer 2.5
Quality of Service
MPLS Labeling Exercise
MPLS Advantages and Challenges
Traffic Engineering
BFD- Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
Allocating Bandwidth
MPLS VPN Exercise

Module 13: PBB
PBB Header
Edge Switches
I Tag, B Tag
Types of Switches

Module 14: IPv6
IPv6 Addresses
IPv6 Header
IPv4 in IPv6
IPv6 in IPv4

Module 15: Name That Protocol Exercise

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